International Research Journal of Religious Studies https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs <p>International Research Journal of Religious Studies (IRJRS) is a peer reviewed International scholarly journal published by Al-Zouq Educational Research Centre. The journal is dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of religions.The Journal “International Research Journal of Religious Studies” is a multi-disciplinary endeavor dedicated to the scholarly study of various aspects of religion and the religious world. Special attention is paid to works dealing with Islamic Philosophy, mysticism, interfaith dialogue and Islamic culture and civilization. The journal seeks to place Islam and its traditions in the light of spirituality and rationality with its pragmatic and tremendous values and to encourage comprehensive consideration of in many facets: to provide a forum for the study of religions with special academic inquiry and in global context; to promote interaction among academics from multiple traditions of learning and exchange and discussion of research findings.“International Research Journal of Religious Studies” will provide a vehicle to help academics, researchers, policy makers to educate, influence and share information to learn from each other’s work as well as to provide a research forum to explore new solutions to new rising problems.</p> en-US editorirjrs@gmail.com (Saad Jaffar) editorirjrs@gmail.com (Saad Jaffar) Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 برصغیر میں اردو ادب کی فکری روایت https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/67 <p>This article delves into the depths of Urdu language and literature in the Indian subcontinent, shedding light on the transformative journey of the philosophical traditions of the society.The term 'philosophical tradition' reflects the collective cognitive process of a community, influenced by various factors such as social, economic, communal, and political contexts. These external factors shape the perspectives and ideas that form the communal philosophical thinking within a specific group.This article attempts to explain the evolution of this philosophical tradition and its impact on the larger community.Literature is a vital and indispensable aspect of any community. It provides a reflection of the character and values of society. Simultaneously, literature plays a crucial role in shaping and influencing the community it belongs to. Modern era academicians recognise that literature serves as a repository of knowledge and collective memory, preserving cultural heritage and history. In doing so, it also comes to serve as a record of the philosophical evolution of social groups and communities. The Urdu language began its development in the Indian subcontinent with the introduction of Islamic teachings in the region. This article traces the evolution of Urdu from its early stages to its recognition as a prominent literary language. The article discusses the literary development of the Urdu language up to the British era.</p> Dr. Shazia Sajid Copyright (c) 2024 https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/67 Sun, 21 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 اردو کے تین اہم قواعد نگار https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/68 <p>Urdu Grammar has evolved over time, influenced by many other factors such as language contact, social and cultural changes, and linguistic theories. These factors transformed the structure and rules of Urdu grammar and made its adaptable linguistic system. It shapes the way Urdu language is spoken, written and understood now a days. It provides a set of rules that govern the usage of the language, and clarify its consistency in communication. These grammatical rule, no doubt, help in preservation and transmission of Urdu literature, poetry, and historical texts. Urdu grammarians played a significant role in standardizing and systemizing the rules of Urdu grammar. For the formation of grammatical rules of Urdu language, instead of following the structural basis of Arabian and Persian grammar, they analyzed the existing linguistic patterns of Urdu, and so formulated rules that are specific to Urdu language.</p> Dr. Faiza Butt Copyright (c) 2024 https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/68 Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Islamization of State: Vision of Jamaat-E-Islami Pakistan https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/69 <p>Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) Pakistan has played a discernible and instrumental role in the process of Islamizing the state of Pakistan. With a well-structured and democratic foundation, JI, established on Islamic principles even before Pakistan's inception, successfully crafted a comprehensive program dedicated to the Islamization of the state. This research delves into the ideological nuances of Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan within the context of state Islamization, employing a qualitative research approach that encompasses both primary and secondary sources. By scrutinizing the historical evolution and doctrinal foundations of JI, the study explores the intricate relationship between the party's ideology and its active contributions to shaping Pakistan's Islamic identity. The research goes beyond a mere examination of JI's organizational structure and delves into the substantive nature of its Islamization program, revealing the multifaceted dimensions of its impact on the state. The qualitative research methodology allows for a nuanced analysis, capturing the depth of JI's influence on the Islamization process. It becomes evident that JI's role extends beyond rhetoric, manifesting as a tangible force in guiding the nation towards Islamic ideals. The study underscores the party's involvement not only in the political domain but also in the formulation and implementation of laws that align with Islamic principles. The research work concludes that due to its well-organized structure and efforts, JI played a significant role in the Islamization of the state of Pakistan.</p> Saira Bano Copyright (c) 2024 https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/69 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 زبان کا ساختیاتی و تجزیاتی مطالعہ https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/74 <p>Structuralism is a critical terminology of linguistics which chiefly concerns the structure in connection with thoughts and expertise / content of the author with relation to his readers. The study of language is quite an interesting enterprise, divided into various subfields, including historical study of the language concerned. This subfield of linguistics focuses on the evolution and changes in languages with the passage of time and tries to understand how languages flourish? How they differ and cooperate with one another? Language or more broadly speaking linguistics is actually a subfield of research whose purpose is to understand the reorientation of languages. It tries to evaluate how languages evolve with the passage of time? Phonetics, words and grammar highlight and explain such changes.Linguistic Specialists can unearth the relationship among various languages and their families by identifying their growth, thereby highlighting the constituent cultures and societies. Language is the most important social instrument which is the real wisdom connected with a man.An introductory course of a particular language provides basic understanding and comprehension of the same. It is designed in a special framework for such persons who are novice in that language and want to comprehend it's basic concepts, structure, words, and pronunciation. An introduction of a particular language serves to cover various aspects of that language. Introduction usually commences with the explanation of alphabets or written methodology and phonetics. It includes understanding the pronunciation of individual words and their various combinations.Commonly used words and sentences are being introduced for facilitation of the learners. Correct pronunciation and expression is being reiterated. Learners are being taught phonetics of the language concerned including difficult or innovative themes which sans their mother language. The introduction of the language often touches the cultural dimensions and provides wider explanation of traditions under various contexts.</p> Shakeel Amjad Sadiq Copyright (c) 2024 https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/74 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 خواتین کےمعاشی ترقی میں کردار میں رکاوٹیں اور ان کا تدارک اسلامی تعلیمات کی روشنی میں جائزہ https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/89 <p><em>Along with the completion of humanity, the role of women is also important in the formation of society. Society cannot progress without the participation of women. In world the number of women is equal to men but the majority has not equal benefit. This class is trapped in the cycle of discrimination between men and women. All over the world, women have been the target of injustice, despite this, they are working alongside men and tried to convince them.They are working in different filed and also Fulfilled the household responsibilities. Pakistani women are trying to take part in all kinds of professions to improve their economic conditions. A large number of women in the country are working in all fields such as industry and craft, trade, politics, army, driver, teaching and research. &nbsp;In the modern era, the amazing progress of science has openly explained the reality of the difference between men and women. Their Participation is playing a positive role in increasing the productivity of country, but a large number of working women are facing many problems. If we want to increase our productivity, these problems must be solved. </em></p> Asia Mukhtar , Dr. Muhammad Saeed Akhter Copyright (c) 2024 https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/89 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 خطیب بغدادی ؒپر جرح و تعدیل (ایک تحقیقی جائزہ) https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/93 <p>In the science of hadith, the Sanad has a special status, but it would not be wrong to say that Allah Almighty has protected the religion of Islam through the Sanad&nbsp; and the Muhadditheen have set a solid condition for quoting the chain of knowledge, so Abdullah bin Mubarak says Sanad is a part of the religion, if it were not there, one could say anything.Khatib al-Baghdadi is one of those personalities who left a great knowledge base for the Ummah on the related sciences of Sunnah, but his words about any narrator are itself a Sanad.Therefore, most of the Muhadditheen benefited from his scholarly work and said good words to appreciate the Khatib, while some people said such negative words about the Khatib due to their personal issues or lack of knowledge, which if placed in the court of the Muhadditheen, they their self would be punished.In this article, the scholarly and research status of interrogating and modifying the sayings about Khatib has been revealed.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Yasin , Dr nasir ahmad akhtar Copyright (c) 2024 https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/93 Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREIGN POLICY OF SOUTH ASIAN COUNRTIES https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/86 <p>The influence of climate change is physical through every place of the globe, particularly in South Asia. Life-threatening weather happenings and rising sea levels clearly highpoint the serious need to statement this demanding issue, as it attitudes a significant threat to humankind's survival on Earth. South Asian nations, for the most part Pakistan, find themselves at the front of this conflict against climate change, with sweeping implications on many fronts. Climate change upsets not only the surroundings but also foreign policy dynamic forces, as poor states fight to navigate its complex challenges. The harmful gases, pollution in air, and the glaciers melting of are all contributing to global high temperature disparities, mostly driven by human activity. In Pakistan, the influence of climate change is baldly evident. Growing temperatures, melting glaciers, rough rain patterns, air effluence, and punishing weather events are reformatting the nation's land. These changes are troublemaking farming, water dearth, trade, health, and international coalitions, thus influencing the country's foreign policy decisions. the economic aftermaths are severe, predominantly in Pakistan, where agriculture forms the backbone of the expensive, engaging a important portion of the workforce. The melting of glaciers, a decisive water source, has led to land dreadful conditions and flooding, impairing the situation. South Asian countries, comprising Pakistan, are on the front lines of climate change, lacking fast action to mitigate its impact. Worldwide cooperation, political efforts, and engagement in regional promises are crucial in addressing this global challenge. Through cooperative creativities, policy development, and public awareness campaigns, South Asian countries can work towards a supportable forthcoming amidst the complications of environment change.To hold climate change efficiently, it is authoritative to include climate aspects into foreign policy development, spend in climate international relations capacity building, and raise regional cooperation. By placing climate rigidity and sustainability, Asian&nbsp; nations can navigate the difficult affiliation between environmental challenges and insightful responses, stonework the way for a more secure and wealthy future for generations to come.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>KEY WORDS </strong></p> <p>Climate change, south Asian countries, foreign policy, comparative analysis, implications&nbsp;</p> Asad ullah, Syeda Ayesha , Dr Imran Naseem, Dr Muhammad rizwan Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Religious Studies https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/86 Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Semantic and Pronunciation Deviations in the Speaking Practices of the Balti English Speakers at University of Baltistan, Skardu https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/90 <p align="CENTER"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><strong>Abstract </strong></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The current study aimed at investigating the phonological and semantic variations between Balti English and standard British English. It further pinpoints the specific lexical and semantic features that characterize Balti English and investigates into the reasons behind the semantic and phonological effects. The current study employed qualitative research design to explore, investigate and identify the assumptions on the basis of the research questions. The data was collected through informal conversation, then the conversation between different people was documented and carefully listened over and over to detect the linguistic variation from Standard English. The researcher found that phonological deviations containing ungrammatical abnormalities in the pronunciation of different speakers, and variations in the meaning termed as semantic deviation were in common lingual practices among the Balti English speakers. There were ambiguity in words, sentences and phrases preferred by the Balti English speakers. It has been noticed that the speakers of English in Baltistan have established their own stereotypical English pronunciation due to their native phonological habits and have also follow their own semantic practices due to their native language semantic choices. The researcher recommends Balti English language as a variety of English for its phonological and semantic variations being practiced and understood in communication by the Balti English speakers in Baltistan. </span></span></p> Abdul Rehman Mir , Altaf Hussain, Irshad Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Religious Studies https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/90 Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 مقاصد ِ شریعت اورمروجہ تکافل https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/95 <p>Allah Almighty granted through Hazrat Muhammad(ﷺ) humanity the rules related to society and economy, halaal and haraam, politics, justice and morality for the attainment of lasting prosperity and prosperity. This Shari'ah is a beautiful combination of comprehensiveness, perfection, and universality, which is the guarantor of prosperity for humanity till the Day of Judgment. Along with the rules of Shari'ah, Allah Almighty and the Beloved of God/ Prophet have made humanity prosperous with the benefits, advantages, and benefits of these issues. Knowing these purposes of Shari'ah makes it easier to follow them and the acts of worship are performed as the right of Allah Almighty. The aims of Shari'ah have been made one of the conditions of Ijtihad. The basic philosophy of financial acts of worship (Zakat, Ushr, Sadaqah, Atiyah) is to benefit the weaker members of society and alleviate their misery through the spirit of benevolence and compassion. The prevailing Takaful, which is based on the Qur'an and Hadith, teaches mutual sympathy, cooperation, and support (moral and financial support) in case of difficult situations and accidents of the members of the society, keeping in view the cooperation of Al-Barr and Taqwa.</p> Prof. Dr. Mohyuddin Hashmi , Shakeel Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/95 Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ROLE OF RELIGION IN THE POLITICS OF PAKISTAN & INDIA https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/79 <p>Pakistan's political trajectory has been strongly influenced by religion because the country emerged as a Muslim state. The situation can be divided into two stages: the pre-partition and post-partition eras. Islam was an effective means for political mobilisation during the pre-partition era, helping to establish a Muslim state. However, the leadership's emphasis on the role of religion greatly decreased once the political goal of nationhood was achieved. Because the people wanted a Muslim country and the leadership wanted a secular state, a dispute over ideology arose. The two-nation theory, which served as a basis for Pakistan, came to be defunct on August 11, 1947, when Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah stated in the public eye that religion was a matter for the individual and focused on the equality of all religions. The value of religion in Pakistan's political growth has been highlighted in different works, such as the 1962 Constitution, the Objectives Resolution, the Basic Principles Committee Report, and the anti-Ahmadiya riots.</p> Junaid Khan; Zainab Aslam, Noor ul ain, Dr Imran Naseem Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Religious Studies https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/79 Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PAKISTAN FOREIGN POLICY TOWARD U.S AND KEY INTEREST 1950-70 https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/97 <p>Pakistan and United State relations developed very next day&nbsp; after the birth of Pakistan 14th August 1947.United State was the most early state of the world whos rcognize the Pakistan very soon after the birth.Pakistan sign the SEATO and CENTO under the leadership of United State.United state become the close friend of Pakistan .U.S become the Cooperative state with Pakistan.United State become the key donor to the Pakistan.United state Help in many sectors such as education,culture economics and Politics.Paskistan Prime minister accept the United state offical invitation and rejecte the USSR invitation .Pakistani Prime Minister Liaquat Ali khan make the twenty three day long visit the U.S. In 1956 U.S President request the Pakistan Prime Minister to gave the Peshware air base.One of the main factor to close the United state was the USSR as communist Block.Second factor to close the U.S is the the U.K .Beacuse Pakistan get independence from the British Raj in the Sub Contientent.In 1960 Ayub khan grant the permission to the U.S to fly the Spy 2 from the Peshwar air base. In 1962 Pakistan and U.S realtions is cold due the defeat the Indai from China war.In 1970 Kissinger visit the Pakistan and secret visit the China to observe the Pakistan China relations natures .over all Pakistan Foreign policy toward U.S not successful in this period.</p> Dr. Muhammad Aslam Faiz , Saima Mehvish , Abad ullah Tariq Copyright (c) 2024 https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/97 Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRIES https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/78 <p><em>The initiative known as the China Belt and Road Initiative was unveiled by Chinese President Jinping in 2013 and focus on the rebuilding the Silk Road Economic Belt and the twenty-first century Maritime Silk Road. The Initiative promoted job opportunities and development of infrastructure. This research paper examines the Belt and Road Initiative and its impact on the economy of South Asian countries including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh , Bhutan and Nepal respectively. The independent variable includes the China investment and dependent variables are GDP growth, GDP Per Capita, employment, trade import, trade export, government effectiveness and external dept level. The research is conducted through quantitative method and the multiple regression analysis is used to analyze the impact of BRI on the economy of South Asian countries. The findings suggest that China BRI Investment has mixed impact on the economy of South Asian countries. The GDP growth and GDP Per capita has no significant impact, but the employment has a positive and significant impact .Additionally a moderate positive impact on trade import and export that indicating increasing economic activities. There is also a moderate relationship between BRI Investment , government effectiveness and the dept level .The analysis indicate that the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has mixed impact on the economies of South Asian countries.</em></p> Misbah Zia, Hafsa Gul , Waqas Anwar , Dr. Imran Naseem Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Religious Studies https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/78 Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ANALYZING THE POLITICAL DYNAMICS AND REGIONAL CONFLICTS IN SOUTH ASIA https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/81 <p>With its diverse cultures, economies, and political systems, South Asia has long been plagued by intricate political dynamics and protracted regional conflicts. An analytical summary of the complex political environment and the interconnected conflicts that are common in South Asia is given in this paper.First, the historical background that influenced the current political dynamics is examined. The complex web of power struggles and alliances in the region is a result of a combination of factors including geopolitical rivalries, nation-building initiatives undertaken after independence, and the legacy of colonialism.The paper also explores the internal political dynamics of major South Asian nations, such as Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka. It investigates the variables affecting electoral procedures, governance frameworks, and the influence of different political parties and interest groups on forming national policies.The study also looks into the widespread regional conflicts that have afflicted South Asia for many years. These conflicts take many different forms, from ethnic tensions like the Tamil-Sinhala divide in Sri Lanka to territorial disputes like the conflict in Kashmir between India and Pakistan. Furthermore, the stability of the region is seriously threatened by religious extremism and terrorism, with extremist factions in Pakistan and Bangladesh and organisations like the Taliban in Afghanistan escalating tensions.The impact of external players on political dynamics and efforts to resolve conflicts in South Asia is also assessed in this paper. These actors include major powers like the United States, China, and Russia as well as international organisations like the United Nations.<br /><br /></p> Zainab Aslam; Noor ul Ain, Junaid Khan; Dr.Imran Naseem Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Religious Studies https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/81 Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 "التلفیق بین المذاہب "کا فقہی جائزہ https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/100 <p>The contemporary era, characterized by the rapid evolution of civilization, the diversity of modern problems, and the abundance of new inventions, has significantly influenced various aspects of life, including Islamic jurisprudence. This has led to an increase in modern Shariah issues, necessitating a greater reliance on secondary sources of Islamic jurisprudence, such as Istihsan (juridical preference), Maslahah Mursalah (public interest), and Maqasid al-Shariah (objectives of Shariah). These principles have become more crucial than ever in addressing contemporary issues.One aspect of this broader discourse is Ifta bi madhab al-ghayr (issuing fatwas according to other schools of thought) and al-talfiq (combining elements from different schools of thought). These concepts are not confined to any specific chapter or section of Fiqh; rather, they represent a general and principled discussion that spans various domains, from Fiqh al-Ibaadat (jurisprudence of worship) and Fiqh al-Asra (jurisprudence of family matters) to Fiqh al-Muamalat (jurisprudence of transactions).Among the contemporary topics that have been examined is the integration found in Takaful (Islamic insurance). While there have been numerous attempts to address such issues, this paper highlights the significant contemporary topic of Takaful integration, emphasizing its relevance and application in modern Islamic jurisprudence.</p> Shakeel Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/100 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SOUTH ASIAN WOMEN IN POLITICS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/88 <p>The abstract summarizes the chapter's purpose of exploring legal laws in South Asia governing minimum participation of women on electoral lists. It also examines women's involvement in party activities and the public sphere, as well as methods proposed by parties to boost women's representation in party organizations. The abstract emphasizes the role of women's organizations and specific political parties in South Asia in empowering women. Overall, it underlines the chapter's goal of providing insights that will guide policies and actions for achieving gender equity in the region's political arena by critically analyzing existing structures and situational factors.</p> Iqra Hanif, Amina Ishfaq , Nazia Gul , Imran Naseem Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Religious Studies https://irjrs.com/index.php/irjrs/article/view/88 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000